Bond market: Glossary

Credit Market General Notions

Amortized loan - A loan with scheduled periodic payments that consist of both principal and interest.Balloon loan - A type of loan that does not fully amortize over its term. Since it is not fully amortized, a balloon payment (loan payment that is much larger than the other payments) is required at the end of the term to repay the remaining principal balance of the loan.Bridge loan - A bridge loan is interim financing for an individual or business until permanent or the next stage of financing can be obtained. Money from the new financing is generally used to "take out" (i.e. to pay back) the bridge loan, as well as other capitalization needs. Bridge loans are typically more expensive than conventional financing because of a higher interest rate, points and other costs that are amortized over a shorter period, and various fees and other "sweeteners" (such as equity participation by the lender in some loans). To compensate for the additional risk the lender may require cross-collateralization and a lower loan-to-value ratio. On the other hand they are typically arranged quickly with relatively little documentation.Bullet loan - Type of balloon loan in which only interest is paid for the duration of loan; the principal is paid at the end of the loan as one lump sum payment.Club loan - Loan which is syndicated by the borrower, acting as arranger and agent of its own deal and using its relationship banks. There may be different structures, but documentation will be identical with the different banks.Cross-border loans - Cross-border loans are any loan agreements entered into by the lender and the borrower (or the borrower and several lenders) registered in different jurisdictions.Islamic facility - Islamic facility is a loan where the receiving bank is not allowed to charge any interest (nominal, simple and compound, fixed or floating). However, the financial institution has a right to gain profit from lending in a different way. For example, it can become an equity partner in the funded project fully sharing risks and premiums of the enterprise. It can also have a right to participate in trading and gain profit from the difference between the price at which goods were purchased and the price of their sale. Given that, Sharia law bans investments in production and sale of alcohol, drugs, weapons, pornography, etc. Any trade contract has to be based on the principle of justice and cannot be about any unlawful enrichment of any party.Multi-currency loan - Financing provided with the option of using different currenciesMurabaha - is an Islamic financing structure in which an intermediary buys a property with free and clear title. Murabaha is not an interest-bearing loan, which is considered riba (or excess), and is an acceptable form of credit sale under Sharia (Islamic religious law). Similar in structure to a rent-to-own arrangement, the intermediary retains ownership of the property until the loan is paid in full.Pre-export financing - Funds advanced by a lending institution against confirmed orders from qualified foreign buyers to enable the exporter to make and supply ordered goods. Usually, the exporter arranges a commitment from the buyer to make the payment directly to the lender.Revolver, revolving loan - Banking arrangement which allows for the loan amount to be withdrawn, repaid, and redrawn again in any manner and any number of times, until the arrangement expires.Secured loan - Loan agreement under which a borrower pledges a specific asset or property which the lender can seize in case of default.Subordinated loan - Loan which ranks after other debt. These loans will normally be repayable after other debt has been serviced and are thus more risky from the lender’s point of viewSyndicated loan - A syndicated loan (or "syndicated facility") is a large loan in which a group of banks work together to provide funds for a borrower. There are typically more than 2 banks involved in a syndication. There is usually one or more lead bank that takes a percentage of the loan and syndicates the rest to other banks. A syndicated loan is the opposite of a bilateral loan, which only involves one borrower and one lender (often a bank or financial institution.) A syndicated loan is a much larger and more complicated version of a participation loan.Syndicated loan tranche - - is a part of funds provided in the form of a syndicated loan. Different tranches of one loan can be denominated in different currencies, have different interest rates, tenors and other material parameters defined by organizers.Term loan - Short-term (usually for one to five years) loan payable in a fixed number of equal installments (usually semiannually) over the term of the loan.

Rates of Interest

Bank Rate of The Bank of England - The official bank rate (also called the Bank of England base rate or BOEBR) is the interest rate that the Bank of England charges Banks for secured overnight lending. It is the British Government’s key interest rate for enacting monetary policy. It is more analogous to the US discount rate than to the Federal funds rate. The security for the lending can be any of a list of eligible securities (commonly Gilts) and are transacted as overnight repurchase agreements. Changes are recommended by the Monetary Policy Committee and enacted by the Governor.Basis point (bp) - is a one hundredth part of a percent (%).Basis rate - Basis rate is the indicator, which the margin is added to or subtracted from, to determine the final rate of the loanEURIBOR - Euribor is short for Euro Interbank Offered Rate. The Euribor rates are based on the average interest rates at which a large panel of European banks borrow funds from one another. There are different maturities, ranging from one week to one year. The Euribor rates are considered to be the most important reference rates in the European money market. The interest rates do provide the basis for the price and interest rates of all kinds of financial products like interest rate swaps, interest rate futures, saving accounts and mortgages. That’s the exact reason why many professionals as well as individuals do monitor the development of the Euribor rates intensivelyFederal funds rate - In the United States, the federal funds rate is the interest rate at which depository institutions actively trade balances held at the Federal Reserve, called federal funds, with each other, usually overnight, on an uncollateralized basis. Institutions with surplus balances in their accounts lend those balances to institutions in need of larger balances. The federal funds rate is an important benchmark in financial markets. The interest rate that the borrowing bank pays to the lending bank to borrow the funds is negotiated between the two banks, and the weighted average of this rate across all such transactions is the federal funds effective rate. The federal funds target rate is determined by a meeting of the members of the Federal Open Market Committee which normally occurs eight times a year about seven weeks apart. The committee may also hold additional meetings and implement target rate changes outside of its normal schedule.LIBOR - The London Interbank Offered Rate is the average interest rate estimated by leading banks in London that they would be charged if borrowing from other banks. It is the primary benchmark for short term interest rates around the world.Margin - Margin is a fixed part of the floating interest rate. For example, if the rate is 50bp over LIBOR, the Margin is 50bpMosPrime Rate - MosPrime Rate is the National Foreign Exchange Association (NFEA) fixing of the reference rate based on the offer rates of Russian Rouble deposits as quoted by the leading participants of the Russian money market to first class financial institutions. MosPrime Rate is an independent indicative rateOvernight Call RateTarget of Bank of Japan - The BOJ introduces regularly scheduled monetary policy meetings and the publication of meeting minutes beginning in 1998. Before 1998 till 1972, the target rate is updated weekly.Refinancing Tender Rate - The Governing Council of the ECB sets the key interest rates (Refinancing Tender) for the euro areaWIBOR - Warsaw Interbank Offered Rate

Market participants

Agent - Agent is the bank responsible for the loan management after the facility is signedArranger - Arranger is typically a bank responsible for preparation of the deal, negotiating the loan terms with the borrower and syndicating it to the other participants. The Arranger can also act as an agent or one of the syndication participantsAsian Development Bank - is a regional financial long-term lending institution of development projects in Asia and the Pacific. It was established in 1966 with headquarters in Manila (Philippines). Its members include 45 countries, 29 of which are the countries of Western Europe and America.Bank for International Settlements - is a clearing house, acting on a joint basis. The shareholders are central banks of foreign exchange markets. Bank for International Settlements is the main meeting place for central bank governors. Settlements are carried out in Swiss gold francs, the dividend is paid annually in U.S. dollars at the exchange rate of the currency market in Zurich.Bookrunner - A bookrunner is usually the main underwriter or lead-manager/arranger/coordinator in equity, debt, or hybrid securities issuances. The bookrunner usually syndicates with other investment banks in order to lower its risk. The bookrunner is listed first among all underwriters participating in the issuance.Clearstream - is an international clearing system located in Europe, which provides storage, clearing and settlement of transactions with international securities; it was established in 2000 as a result of a merge of Cedel and Clearinghouse Deutsche Boerse Clearing; since July 2002 it has completely come under management of Deutsche Boerse AG. The system comprises three branches: Clearstream Banking Frankfurt, Clearstream Banking Luxembourg and Clearstream Services.Depository - is a professional participant of the security market, performing services on storage of securities certificates and / or registration and transfer of securities title. In Russia, only a legal entity can function as a depository. Historically, the term “Depository" was identified with the bank safe, where values were deposited. Due to the rapid growth of security market, issues of a large number of different securities have become the main object of depository activities.Euroclear - is a system for the settlement of securities (bonds, shares, fund units) transactions in the domestic and international markets. It provides settlement services to major financial institutions located in more than 80 countries. It was established in 1968 in Brussels; group of companies Euroclear Group comprises Euroclear plc., Euroclear Bank and Euroclear France. In September 2002, British Euroclear merged with the settlement organization CrestCo.European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - (EBRD) is a regional interstate bank for long-term lending to countries in Central and Eastern Europe. It was established in 1991. The location is in London.Financial advisor - A financial advisor provides financial advice or guidance to customers for compensation. Financial advisors, or advisers, can provide many different services, such as investment management, income tax preparation and estate planning.Guarantor - A guarantor - is a party who guarantees to provide payment on a bond, loan, or other liability in the event of default. A guarantor acts as a co-signor of sorts, in that they pledge their own assets or services if a situation arises in which the original debtor cannot perform their obligations. Guarantors reduce the risk to loans and liabilities, and usually improve the credit ratings of bonds.International Finance Corporation - is an independent branch of the World Bank, formed in 1971 for investments in the private sector of the countries, following the privatization path.Investor - is any person who commits capital with the expectation of financial returns. Investors utilize investments in order to grow their money and/or provide an income during retirement, such as with an annuity.Issuer - A legal entity that develops, registers and sells securities for the purpose of financing its operations.Market maker - is a broker-dealer firm that assumes the risk of holding a certain number of bonds of a particular security in order to facilitate the trading of that security. Each market maker competes for customer order flow by displaying buy and sell quotations for a guaranteed number of bonds, and once an order is received from a buyer, the market maker immediately sells from its own inventory or seeks an offsetting order.Paying agent - Paying agent - an institution, usually an investment bank, that accepts funds from the issuer of a security and distributes them to that security’s holders. In bonds, it receives coupon payments, which it then gives to bondholders. A paying agent acts as an intermediary in these transactions, and receives a fee for these services.Rating Agency - is a profit organization providing the assessment of the issuers’ solvency, debt obligations, corporate governance quality, asset management quality, etc. The most well-known product of Rating Agencies is the assessment of solvency - credit rating. It reflects the risk of non-payment of a debt obligation and affects the interest rate, cost and debt obligation yield. In this case, a higher rating corresponds to a lower risk of non-payment.SPV or SPE - A special purpose vehicle (SPV) or special purpose entity (SPE) is a company that is created solely for a particular financial transaction or series of transactions.Stock Exchange - is an organization that provides some facilities: security exchange, IPO.The aim of the stock exchange is to help buyers of the stock find sellers of the stock. The big exchanges are LSE, NYSE, Nasdaq, Frankfurt Stock Exchange, Tokyo Stock Exchange, Shanghai Stock Exchange.Surety - An individual or corporation that guarantees the performance or actions of another. A surety , as a general rule, is a party to the original contract of the principal, he signs his name to the original agreement at the same time the principal signs, and the consideration for the principal’s contract is the consideration for the agreement of the surety’s. The surety is therefore bound on his contract from the very beginning, and he is bound also to inform himself of the defaults of the principal debtor, and he is not in any part relieved from his obligations under the contract by the creditor’s failure to inform him of the principal’s default in the contract, for which contract the surety has become the security for.Syndicate - is a group of financial institutions, organized to carry out a particular transaction – an extention of a credit, placement of a bond issue.Syndication participant - Syndication participant is one of banks providing the syndicated facilityUnderwriter - is a company or other legal entity that manages the securities issue and their distribution. Underwriter guarantees the issuer the revenue from the sale of securities, and actually buys securities. Typically, an investment bank acts as an underwriter.